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  Homing pigeons are placed in a training program from about the time
they are twenty-eight days of age. They are taught to enter the cage
through a trap and to exercise above and around the loft(鸽棚) ,
andgradually they are taken away for short distances in willow baskets
andreleased. They are then expected to find their way home in the
shortestpossible time。

A few days ago, on 15th April, 2015, a terrified riot aimed at foreign
residents happened in South Africa. For years, South Africa was named by
its multi-racial environment and well-developed in economics. It is also
called rainbow country. However, the whole riot is not happening
suddenly and unreasonably. This essay is going to analyze the reasons
that South Africa can become the second largest
economy[1] in Africa and also
the reasons why there are such problem happened in South Africa. Finally
a conclusion will be drawn.

  In their training flights or in actualraces, the birds are taken to
prearranged distant points and released to findtheir way back to their
own lofts. Once the birds are liberated, their owners,who are standing
by at the home lofts, anxiously watch the sky for the returnof their
entries. Since time is of the essence, the speed with which the birdscan
be induced to enter the loft trap may make the difference between
gaining awin or a second place。

Become the First Class in Africa

  The head of a homing pigeon iscomparatively small, but its brain is
one quarter larger than that of theordinary pigeon. The homing pigeon is
very intelligent and will persevere tothe point of stubbornness; some
have been known to fly a hundred miles offcourse to avoid a storm。

Once upon the time, South Africa was one of the British colonies. Like
many other colonies, British warlords not only brought humiliation but
also great opportunities of industrialization. After the year 1866, gold
mines and diamond mines were found in South Africa. Gold and diamond
became the main export products and brought great amount of wealth to
South Africa. Besides, after the establishing of the Republic of South
Africa, the development in manufacturer, especially steel-making, led to
huge economic growth to the country. The whole manufacturer industry
made 16% of the nominal GDP in 2008. Unlike Venezuela, other industries
like agriculture, fishery and service industry are also well-developed
in South Africa compared with other African countries. Multi-race,
especially the high percentage of white residents plays the very
important role of the economic development of South Africa rather than
other African countries.

  Some homing pigeon experts claim thatthis bird is gifted with a form
of built-in radar that helps it find its ownloft after hours of flight,
for hidden under the head feathers are two verysensitive ears, while the
sharp, prominent eyes can see great distances indaytime。

Problems of South Africa

  Why do homing pigeons fly home? They arenot unique in this inherent
skill; it is found in most migratory birds, inbees, ants, toads, and
even turtles, which have been known to travel hundredsof miles to return
to their homes. But in the animal world, the homing pigeonalone can be
trusted with its freedom and trained to carry out the missionsthat
people demand。

However, behind the great success, problems in South Africa are even
more serious.

  1. This passage is mainly about_______。

First and the most important problem is the high unemployment rate. In
2010 the official number was 24.2% which means based on the official
statistical office there were 24.2% of labors could not find jobs in
labor market. Actually the official number just counted those who were
willing to work but not those who had already given up finding a job. In
fact, there were only 41% of the whole population in labor age that were
working in 2010. The cheerful social welfare for unemployed people even
encouraged people not to work, which also made government’s burden

  A. homing pigeons and their training

Secondly, the great distinguish between black people and others also
aggravates the hate in normal people’s heart. Even if Nelson Mandala
pushed very hard on the equality between black and white, in deep side
of people’s mind blacks are still poor,dirty and uncivilized. In South
Africa, 53.8% of people were under the poverty line and the Gini
coefficient was 0.62 in 2011. The majority of those poor people are
black. And they are also the majority of the riot happened recently.

  B. how to buy a homing pigeon

Thirdly, in South Africa, illegal immigration is also very serious,
especially in contraction,tourism and housing service industry. Because
the salary of those illegal immigration are generally lower than local
people. This makes the employment opportunities even fewer than before.
Although the immigration policy have been more and stricter since 1994,
there are supply and demand, then there are market. Local residents hate
rich people but hate foreigners even more.

  C. protection of homing pigeons againstthe threat of extinction

Forth is about the labor union. The labor union in South Africa asked
that the growth rate of wage should be greater than inflation rate which
is around 5%. They usually hold big campaigns and strikes. Finally
government rose the growth rate of wages to 7.5%but only the members of
labor union can enjoy newest salary. Those nonmember people are usually
farmers and fishers who are all local residents. So the gap of income
level between the each industry amplifies as time passes by, so does the
unsatisfactory inside poor people’s mind.

  D. liberation of homing pigeons


  2. According to the passage, whathappens to homing pigeons when they
are about a month old?

Every time a riot or a campaign happens, there must be some reasons
behind it and these reasons are usually not made by the people but the
government. Governments tend to blame on the chaos made by people and
regard them as criminals. But try to imagine who would like to go on the
street fight against a well-organized government rather than stay at
home enjoy their happy life. The people are just sometimes irrational so
that they think violence is the only way to solve the problem and force
the government to become well-organized enough so that they can have
happy life. If government cannot see through it and try to solve the
problem,then the problem is always problem and violence will happen once
and once again.Now what South African government should do is to figure
out a way to decrease the unemployment rate instead of just making
statement of strongly denunciation of the criminal.

  A. They are kept in a trap。


  B. They enter their first race。


  C. They begin a training program。


  D. They get their wings clipped andmarked。


  3. According to the passage, thedifference between a homing pigeon
and an ordinary one is_______。


  A. the span of the wings B. the shape ofthe eyes

[1]The first one was South
Africa before 2014. Now it is Nigeria. But lots of scholar still regard
South Africa as the most successful economy in Africa because per
capital GDP of Nigeria is lower than South Africa.

  C. the texture of the feathers D. thesize of the brain

  4. The author mentions all of thefollowing attributes that enable a
homing pigeon to

  return home EXCEPT_______。

  A. instinct B. air sacs

  C. sensitive ears D. good eyes

  5. Why does the author mention bees,ants, toads, and turtles in the
last paragraph?

  A. To describe some unusual kinds ofpets。

  B. To measure distances traveled byvarious animals。

  C. To compare their home-findingabilities with those of homing

  D. To interest the reader in learningabout other animals。


  Are some people born clever, and othersborn stupid? Or is
intelligence developed by our environment and ourexperiences? Strangely
enough, the answer to both these questions is yes. Tosome extent our
intelligence is given us at birth, and no amount of specialeducation can
make a genius out of a child born with low intelligence. On theother
hand, a child who lives in a boring environment will develop
hisintelligence less than one who lives in rich and varied surroundings.
Thus thelimits of a person’s intelligence are fixed at birth, but
whether or not hereaches those limits will depend on his environment.
This view, now held bymost experts, can be supported in a number of

  It is easy to show that intelligence isto some extent something we
are born with. The closer the blood relationshipbetween two people, the
closer they are likely to be in intelligence. Thus ifwe take two
unrelated people at random(任意的) from the population,it is likely
thattheir degrees of intelligence will be completely different. If on
the otherhand we take two identical (完全相同的) twins they will very
likely be asintelligent as each other. Relations like brothers and
sisters, parents andchildren, usually have similar intelligence, and
this clearly suggests that intelligencedepends on birth。

  Imagine now that we take two identicaltwins and put them in
different environments. We might send one, for example,to a university
and the other to a factory where the work is boring. We wouldsoon find
differences in intelligence developing, and this indicates
thatenvironment as well as birth plays a part. This conclusion is also
suggested bythe fact that people who live in close contact with each
other, but who are notrelated at all, are likely to have similar degrees
of intelligence。

  26. Which of these sentences bestdescribes the writer’s point in
Paragraph 1?

  A. To some extent, intelligence is givenat birth。

  B. Intelligence is developed by theenvironment。

  C. Some people are born clever andothers born stupid。

  D. Intelligence is fixed at birth, butis developed by the

  27. It is suggested in this passagethat_______。

  A. unrelated people are not likely tohave different intelligence

  B. close relations usually have similarintelligence

  C. the closer the blood relationshipbetween people, the more
different they are likely to be in intelligence

  D. people who live in close contact witheach other are not likely to
have similar degrees of intelligence

  28. Brothers and sisters are likely to_______。

  A. have similar intelligence B. havedifferent intelligence

  C. go to the same university D. go tothe same factory

  29. In Paragraph 1, the word”surroundings” means_______。

  A. intelligence B. life

  C. environments D. housing

  30. The best title for this articlewould be_______。

  A. On Intelligence

  B. What Intelligence Means

  C. We Are Born with Intelligence

  D. Environment Plays a Part inDeveloping Intelligence


  In the last 12 years total employment in the United Statesgrew
faster than at any time in the peacetime history of any country – from
82to 110 million between 1973 and 1985 – that is, by a full one third.
The entiregrowth, however, was in manufacturing, and especially in no –
blue-collar jobs…  This trend is the same in all developedcountries,
and is, indeed, even more pronounced in Japan. It is therefore
highlyprobable that in 25 years developed countries such as the United
States andJapan will employ no larger a proportion of the labor force I
n manufacturingthan developed countries now employ in farming – at most,
10 percent. Today theUnited Statesemploys around 18 million people in
blue-collar jobs in manufacturingindustries. By 2010, the number is
likely to be no more than 12 million. Insome major industries the drop
will be even sharper. It is quite unrealistic,for instance, to expect
that the American automobile industry will employ morethan one –third of
its present blue-collar force 25 years hence, even thoughproduction
might be 50 percent higher。

  If a company, an industry or a country does notin the next quarter
century sharply increase manufacturing production and atthe same time
sharply reduce the blue-collar work force, it cannot hope toremain
competitive – or even to remain “developed。” The attempt to
preservesuch blue – collar jobs is actually a prescription for

  This is not a conclusion that Americanpoliticians, labor leaders or
indeed the general public can easily understandor accept. What confuses
the issue even more it that the United Statesis experiencing several
separate and different shifts in the manufacturingeconomy. One is the
acceleration of the substitution of knowledge and capitalfor manual
labor. Where we spoke of mechanization a few decades ago, we nowspeak of
“robotization “ or “automation。” This is actually more a change
interminology than a change in reality. When Henry Ford introduced the
assemblyline in 1909, he cut the number of man – hours required to
produce a motor carby some 80 percent in two or three years –far more
than anyone expects toresult from even the most complete robotization.
But there is no doubt that weare facing a new, sharp acceleration in the
replacement of manual workers bymachines –that is, by the products of

  1.According to the author, the shrinkage in themanufacturing labor
force demonstrates______。

  A.the degree to which a country’s production is robotized

  B.a reduction in a country’s manufacturing industries

  C.a worsening relationship between labor and management

  D.the difference between a developed country and a developing

  2.According to the author, in coming 25years, a developed country or
industry,in order t remain competitive, ought to ______。

  A.reduce the percentage of the blue-collar work force

  B.preserve blue – collar jobs for international competition

  C.accelerate motor – can manufacturing in Henry Ford’s style

  D.solve the problem of unemployment

  3.American politicians and labor leaders tend to dislike_____。

  A.confusion in manufacturing economy increase in blue – collar work force

  C.internal competition in manufacturing production

  D.a drop in the blue – collar job opportunities

  4.The word “prescription” in “a prescription for unemployment” may
be theequivalent to ______

  A.something recommended as medical treatment

  B.a way suggested to overcome some difficulty

  C.some measures taken in advance

  D.a device to dire

  5.This passage may have been excepted from ________

  A.a magazine about capital investment article on automation

  C.a motor-car magazine article on global economy


  What does the future hold for the problem ofhousing? A good deal
depends, of course, on the meaning of “future”. If one isthinking in
terms of science fiction and the space age, it is at least possibleto
assume that man will have solved such trivial and earthly problems
ashousing. Writers of science fiction, from H.G. Wells onwards, have had
littleto say on the subject. They have conveyed the suggestion that men
will live ingreat comfort, with every conceivable apparatus to make life
smooth, healthyand easy, if not happy. But they have not said what his
house will be made of.Perhaps some new building material, as yet
unimagined, will have beendiscovered or invented at least. One may be
certain that bricks and mortar(泥灰,灰浆) will long have gone outof

  But the problems of the next generation or twocan more readily be
imagined. Scientists have already pointed out that unlesssomething is
done either to restrict the world’s rapid growth in population orto
discover and develop new sources of food (or both), millions of people
willbe dying of starvation or at the best suffering from underfeeding
before thiscentury is out. But nobody has yet worked out any plan for
housing thesegrowing populations. Admittedly the worst situations will
occur in the hottestparts of the world, where housing can be light
structure or in backward areaswhere standards are traditionally low. But
even the minimum shelter requiresmaterials of some kind and in the
teeming, bulging towns the low-standard“housing” of flattened petrol
cans and dirty canvas is far more wasteful ofground space than can be

  Since the war, Hong Konghas suffered the kind of crisis which is
likely to arise in many other placesduring the next generation.
Literally millions of refugees arrived to swell thealready growing
population and emergency steps had to be taken rapidly toprevent
squalor(肮脏)and disease and the spread crime. The city is tacklingthe
situation energetically and enormous blocks of tenements(贫民住宅)are
rising at anastonishing aped. But Hong Kong is only onesmall part of
what will certainly become a vast problem and not merely ahousing
problem, because when population grows at this rate there
areaccompanying problems of education, transport, hospital services,
drainage,water supply and so on. Not every area may give the same
resources as Hong Kong to draw upon and the search for quicker
andcheaper methods of construction must never cease。

  1.What is the author’s opinion of housing problems in the first

  A.They may be completely solved at sometime in the future。

  B.They are unimportant and easily dealt with。

  C.They will not be solved until a new building material has been

  D.They have been dealt with in specific detail in books describing
the future。

  2.The writer is sure that in the distant future ___。

  A.bricks and mortar will be replaced by some other building

  B.a new building material will have been invented。

  C.bricks and mortar will not be used by people who want their house
to befashionable。

  D.a new way of using bricks and mortar will have been discovered。

  3.The writer believes that the biggest problem likely to confront
the worldbefore the end of the century ___。 difficult to foresee。

  B.will be how to feed the ever growing population。

  C.will be how to provide enough houses in the hottest parts of the
world。 the question of finding enough ground space。

  4.When the writer says that the worst situations will occur in the
hottestparts of the world or in backward areas, he is referring to the
fact that inthese parts ___。

  A.standards of building are low。

  B.only minimum shelter will be possible。

  C.there is not enough ground space。

  D.the population growth will be the greatest。

  5.Which of the following sentences best summarizes Paragraph 3?

  A.Hong Kong has faced a serious crisis caused by millions of

  B.Hong Kong has successfully dealt with the emergency caused by
millions ofrefugees。




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