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二〇一一印度语印尼语六级听力复合式听写原著

  2012年3月高校泰语六级考试已终结,此次试验为多题多卷,天涯论坛指引[微博]频道第有时间搜罗整理不一样版本试题,供考生参照他事他说加以调查,以下为六级听力复合式听写原来的文章(沪江版)。

那本书的pdf版本下载已经多少个月了,然则一直没有意志读完,更不提实践每章的运用了。最终想了个笨办法,也是受李笑来老师启迪,三个词叁个词敲下来,确实对读书有利于。前几日有的时候敲到这里。

  二〇一一年七月高校匈牙利语六级考试
Part III Listening Comprehension
复合式听写标题

By Vincent Ryan Ruggiero

  Self-image is the picture you have of yourself, the  sort of person
you believe you are. Included in your self-image are the 
categories in which you place yourself, the roles you play and
other similar  descriptors you use to identify yourself. If you
tell an acquaintance you are a  grandfather who recently lost his wife
and who does volunteer work on weekends,  several elements of your
self-image are bought to light — the roles of  grandparent, widower and
conscientious citizen。<br />But self-image is more than  how you
picture yourself; it also involves how others see you. Three types of 
feedback from others are indicative of how they see us: conformation,
rejection,  and disconfirmation. Conformation occurs when others treat
you in a manner  consistent with who you believe you are.You believe you
have leadership  abilities and your boss put you in charge of a new work
team. On the other hand,  rejection occurs when others treat you in a
manner that is inconsistent with  yourself definition. Pierre Salinger
was appointed senator from California but  subsequently lost his first
election.  He thought he was a good public official,  but the
voters obviously thought otherwise— Their vote was inconsistent with
his  self-concept. The third type of feedback is disconfirmation, which
occurs when  others fail to respond to your notion of self by responding
neutrally. A student writes what he thinks is  an excellent
composition, but the teacher writes no encouraging  remarks. Rather
than  relying on how others classify you, consider how you identify
yourself. The way  in which you identify yourself is the best refection
of  yourself-image。

INTRODUCTION

Beyond feelings is designed to introduce you to the subject of critical
thinking. The subject is undoubtedly new to you because it is not taught
in most elementary and secondary schools. In fact, until fairly recently
it was not taught in most colleges. During the 1960s and much of the
1970s the emphasis was more on subjectivity than on objectivity, more on
feeling than on thought.

Over the past ten years, however, a number of studies of America’s
schools have criticized the neglect of critical think, and a growing
number of educators and leaders in business, industry, and the
professions have urged the development of new courses and teaching
materials to overcome that neglect.

It is no exaggeration to say that critical thinking is one of the most
important subjects you will study in college regardless of your academic
major. The quality of your schoolwork, your efforts in your career, your
contributions to community life, and your conduct of personal affairs
will all depend on your ability to solve problems and make decisions.

The book has four main sections. The first, “The Context,” will help you
to understand such important concepts as individuality, thinking, truth,
knowledge, and opinion and to overcome attitudes and ideas that obstruct
critical thinking. The second section, “The Problems,” will teach you to
recognize and avoid nine common errors that often occur, singly or in
combination, during the thinking process. The third section, “A
Strategy,” will help you acquire the various skills used in addressing
problems and issues. This section includes tips on identifying and
overcoming you personal intellectual weaknesses, as well as techniques
for becoming more observant, clarifying issues and conducting inquiry,
interpreting evidence, analyzing other people’s views, and making sound
judgments.

At the end of each chapter you will find a number of applications to
challenge your critical thinking and provide exercise for your sills.

These applications cover problems and issues both timely and timeless.

The fourth section of the book, “Some Contemporary Issues,” presents
additional important issues that continue to occupy the attention of the
best thinkers of our time.

In brief, Beyond Feelings is designed to help you acquire the
intellectual skills necessary to solve the exciting problems of today
and tomorrow.

Chapter One

WHO ARE YOU?

Suppose someone asked, “Who are you?” it would be simple enough to
respond with your name. But if the person wanted to know the whole story
about who you are, it would be more difficult to answer. You’d obviously
have to give the details of your height and age and weight. You’d also
have to include all your sentiments and preferences, even the secret
ones you’d never shared with anyone – your affection for you parents;
your desire to please the crowd you associate with; your dislike of your
older sister’s husband; your allegiance to Budweiser beer, the Ford
Motor Company, the Denver Broncos, Calvin Klein jeans, and Bruce
Springsteen.

Your attitudes couldn’t be overlooked either – the impatience you have
when an issue gets complex, your aversion to English courses, your
rejection of communism, your fear of high places and dogs and speaking
in public. The list would go on. To be complete, it would have to
include all your characteristics – not only the physic cal but the
emotional and intellectual as well.

To provide all that information would be quite a chore. But suppose the
questioner was still curious, and now asked, “How did you get the way
you are?” if your patience were not yet exhausted, changes are you’d
answer something like this: “I’m that way because i choose to be,
because I’ve considered other sentiments and preferences and attitudes
and made my selection. The one I chose fit my style and personality
best.” That answer is a natural enough one, and in part it’s true. But
in a larger sense it’s not true. The impact of the world on all of us is
much greater than we usually realize.

Ø INFLUENCES ON IDENTITY

You are not only a member of a particular species, Homo sapiens, but you
exist a t a particular moment in the history of the species. Being a
young adult today is quite different from being a young adult thirty
years ago, and very different from being a young adult in 1500 or 10,000
B.C. The world’s state of progress differs, and likewise its knowledge
and beliefs and values. The opportunities for learning and working and
relaxing are not the same. So people’s daily thoughts and actions vary.

Variations in place and circumstance also can make a difference. If
you’re from a large city, the odds are you look at many things
differently from someone in the country. A person raised for eighteen
years in New York City or Los Angeles who goes to college in town of
3,000 will find the experience difficult. So will a person raised on an
isolated farm. But probably for opposite reasons! If you are an American
sports enthusiast, you’re probably interested in football, baseball, or
basketball. But if you were Chinese, you’d much more familiar with and
excited about ping-ping, and if you were European, soccer. If your
father is an automobile mechanic, you undoubtedly know more about cars
than does the average person. If your mother is a teacher, you’ll tend
have a somewhat different perspective on school and teachers than do
other students.

In much the same way, all the details about your family very likely have
some bearing on who you are.Their religion, race, national origin,
political affiliation, economic level, attitudes towards one another,
all have made some contribution to your identity.

Of course, people may reject what they are taught at home. People
between the ages of eighteen and twenty-one often have sharp and
apparently permanent differences with their parents in terms of beliefs
and values on many issues. Still, whether you accept or reject what you
are taught, your present position grows out of those teachings. It is a
response to your upbringing. Given different parents with a different
culture and different values – growing up, say, in Istanbul rather than
Dubuque – your response would necessarily be different. You would, in
that sense, not be the same person.

Ø THE ROLE OF MASS CULTURE

In centuries past, the influence of family and teachers was the
dominant, and sometimes the only, influence on children. Today, however,
the influence exerted by mass culture( but broadcast media, newspapers,
magazines and popular music) is often greater.

By age eighteen the average teenager has spent 11,000 hours in the class
room and 22,000 hours in front of the television set. He or she has done
perhaps 13,000 school lessons, yet has watched more than 750,000
commercials.

What effects does mass culture have on young people ( and many adults,
as well)? To answer, we need only consider the formats and devices
commonly used. Modern advertising typically bombards the public with
slogans and testimonials by celebrities. This approach is designed to
appeal to emotions and create artificial needs for products and
services. As a result, many people develop the habit of responding
emotionally, impulsively, and gullibly to such appeals.

Television programmers use frequent scene shifts and sensory appeals
such as car crashes, violence, and sexual encounters to keep audience
interest from diminishing. Then they add frequent commercial
interruptions. As a result, many people find it difficult to concentrate
in school or at work. They may think the teacher or the job is boring
when, in fact, mass culture has made them impatient with the normal
rhythms of life. Finally, mass culture promotes values that oppose those
held by most parents. Play is presented as more fulfilling than work,
self-gratification more desirable than self-control, and materialism
more meaningful than idealism. People who adopt these values without
questioning them may end up sacrificing worthy goals to their pursuit of
“a good time” and lots of money.

Ø EFFECTS ON SELF-IMAGE

The circumstances of our lives are so influential that they affect not
only our view of the world but also our view of ourselves. If you were
to make a list of your capacities for different kinds of activities, you
might say, for example, “i work well with mechanical things, but i have
no talent for dealing with ideas.” Would that be accurate? Not
necessarily! It would be what you had come to believe about yourself,
the conclusion you’d reached as a result of your experience. However, it
might very well be a conclusion you reached too soon.

Dr. Maxwell Maltz explains the amazing results one educator had in
improving the grades of school children by changing their self-images.
He had observed that when they saw themselves as stupid in a particular
subject ( or stupid in general), they unconsciously acted to confirm
their self-images. They believed they were stupid, so they acted that
way. Reasoning that it was their defeatist attitude rather than lack of
ability that was defeating them, the educator set out to change their
self-images. He found that when he accomplished that, they no longer
behaved stupidly!

Maltz records how this same negative self-image kept a salesman from
every reaching more than a certain level of sales. When his territory
was changed to a larger and more promising territory, he continued to
make the same dollar amount, not a bit more. The trouble was found to be
not in the conditions of his work but in his self-image. He had decided
he couldn’t exceed a certain amount, and so he subconsciously prevented
himself from doing so.

Maltz concludes from these and other examples that our experiences can
work a kind of self-hypnotism on us, suggesting a conclusion about
ourselves and then urging us to make it come true.

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